The Devil in the meadow: the Satanic associations of Warwickshire’s flora

 

This month’s post is another of my occasional transatlantic ‘diversions’. The plant, or rather, plants I’m featuring take the devilish theme to the other side of the Atlantic, to the county of Warwickshire, England.

As with some Jamaican plants, a number of British plants are called after, or have associations with the Devil. For example, in the Folklore of Warwickshire (2004), Roy Palmer lists “Naughty Man’s (or Cow) Parsley, Naughty Man’s Plaything (Shepherd’s Purse), and Devil’s Nightcap (Hedge Parsley)”. It may seem a bit strange that a being as heinous as the Devil could be described ‘Naughty’. However, in past centuries in England the word naughty meant ‘wicked’ rather than the more innocuous connotation that it has today.

I’d always been of the assumption that blue plants were linked with the Virgin Mary. However, in the Warwickshire countryside, they take on a more sinister aspect. Writing on Warwickshire plant lore in 1929, J. Harvey Bloom stated that: “All blue flowers are Devil’s flowers and unlucky especially the Germander Speedwell.” He went on to say that “Love-in-the-Mist is also called Devil-in-a-Bush… ”

However, rather than the colour of its petals, there is a more obvious ‘explanation’ to Love-in-the-Mist’s Satanic connections. The seed head with its little “horns” makes its alternative name of Devil-in-a-Bush apparent.

160px-Love_in_the_Mist_(Unsplash_db23UKIiAdo)
Love-in-the-mist

Although purple rather than blue in colour, another flower fitting in with the theme of British plants that are associated with Satan is the Devil’s Bit Scabious (Succisa pratensis). Much like Germander Speedwell (Veronica chamaedrys) and Love-in-the-Mist (Nigella damascena), Devil’s Bit Scabious is a pretty plant and so links to Beelzebub aren’t the first things that spring to mind. It also has medicinal uses. However, one folkloric theory of its name which is based on the plant’s appearance provides some explanation. In Discovering the Folklore of Plants (2008), Margaret Baker writes that the Devil’s Bit Scabious got its name from “its abruptly terminating stem. The Devil, envious of the good the plant could do… took away part of the root”.

 

Devil's_Bit_Scabious_-_geograph_org_uk_-_1497894
Devils’ Bit Scabious

 

As for the Germander Speedwell the only spiritual associations I can find for the plant (so far) is a holy one. Baker says that its flowers “are said to resemble St Veronica’s handkerchief, which was impressed with Christ’s likeness”. She also notes that speedwell is also believed to be “effective against spells”.

Compton Verney May 2018 011
germander speedwell

 

Next time…. It’s back to Jamaica for the duppy-scaring properties of Guinea weed.

 

 

Sources in order of appearance in the text

Roy Palmer Folklore of Warwickshire (revised edn, Stroud; Tempus Publishing Limited, 2004; orig. edn, London: Batsford, 1976), p. 117.

J. Harvey Bloom, Folk Lore, Old Customs and Superstitions in Shakespeare’s Land (London: Mitchell Hughes and Clarke, 1929), p. 148.

Margaret Baker, Discovering the Folklore of Plants (Oxford: Shire Publications Ltd, 2008), p. 141.

Image credits: Germander Speedwell by Simon Noel (private collection)

Love-in the-Mist by Annie Spratt – https://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Love_in_the_Mist_(Unsplash_db23UKIiAdo).jpg

Devil’s Bit Scabious by Philip – https://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Devil%27s_Bit_Scabious_-_geograph.org.uk_-_1497894.jpg

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

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Parsley (Petroselinum crispum)

As mentioned previously, this month’s post is taking a little holiday from Jamaican plant lore. Instead I pay a visit to my native Warwickshire to look at some sinister beliefs surrounding parsley (Petroselinum crispum). Just as a number of Jamaican plants have associations with the more negative spectrum of the spirit world, parsley too has links with a harmful entity. In fact, with the most negative spirit himself (in Christian belief at least), the Devil.

The folklore scholar C.S. Wharton found that in South Warwickshire it was held that “Only wicked people can make parsley grow” and that parsley goes down to hell and returns up again through the earth nine times.

The association of parsley with the Devil seems countrywide in England. A common theme is that it has to be planted on Good Friday, particularly between the hours of twelve and 3 pm, the time of Christ’s crucifixion, as during this period the Devil “is powerless and preoccupied”. Other cultivation tips linking parsley with Old Nick include pouring boiling water on the ground to “deter Satan” and having to plant three lots of seed: “one for the gardener and two for the Devil”.

parsley
Why does parsley have these associations with Beelzebub? One reason may be that the plant can be difficult to germinate. The fact that parsley seeds lie in the ground a long time before showing any sign of life may have resulted in the belief that it had burrowed down to visit Satan in his realm deep in the bowels of the earth.

Another reason could be the influence of the Classical belief that parsley is an unlucky plant associated with death. In Greek legend parsley first grew from the blood of the young son of King Lycurgus. The child, Archemorus, whose name means ‘the forerunner of death’, was killed by a snake whilst his nurse was distracted. In Discovering the Folklore of Plants, Margret Baker notes how the ancient Greeks and Romans adorned tombs with parsley and “wreaths were worn by victors of the funeral games” held to commemorate the dead.

Parsley was introduced into Britain from the Mediterranean so its unlucky reputation may have travelled here along with the original plants.

FYI
For this post I’ve used information from the books mentioned below in the Sources section. However I’ve since come across a fascinating blog on the cultural links between food and death. So if parsley’s associations with death have been of interest, I’d recommend a peek at “Nourishing Death” – https://nourishingdeath.wordpress.com/2013/12/30/parsley-the-herb-of-death/

Next time….
It’s a return to Beckwith’s Jamaican plant lists and, as it’s the run up to Hallowe’en it’s got to be something ghost-related. so I’ll be looking at how Spirit Weed can help stop bothersome beings.

Sources (in order of appearance in entry)
C.S. Wharton, “The Folklore of South Warwickshire” (self-published thesis or dissertation, 1974), p. 33.
R.L. Tongue, “Folk –Song and Folklore”, Folklore, vol. 78, no. 4 (1967), pp. 293-303, p. 295.
Margaret Baker, Discovering the Folklore of Plants (Oxford: Shire Publications Ltd, 2008), p. 118
Richard Mabey, Food for Free (reprint, London: Collins, 2007, of orig. edn, London: Collins, 1972), p. 143.
Image credits: no attribution given – https://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File%3AParsley.jpg